If something blows your mind, you are very excited or surprised by it. This can include, of course, the use of hallucinatory drugs.
If you tend to take things literally, ‘blew my mind’ could mean your head exploding, and ‘blew me away’ might evoke a gust of wind.
‘Boggle the mind’ is similar, but it seems to me to be a milder form of the same idea.
This expression became commonplace in the 1960s. The first written reference to ‘blow your mind’ is from October 1965, in the Ohio newspaper The Sunday Messenger. In that same year, Bob Dylan used ‘blew my mind’ on the album Bringing It All Back Home, in a song: “A pay phone was ringin’ and it just about blew my mind”
It isn’t clear whether Dylan coined the term or repeated something already in circulation, although his creativity was such that his inventing it is entirely plausible.
There are several other phrases that describe the experience of world views being challenged and revised. These are more formal than ‘blow your mind’ but less colorfully descriptive.
— That experience took my breath away
— Gave me a new perspective
— Stunned / amazed / astonished me
— Experienced an epiphany
— Expanded my horizons
— Pushed the envelope
— Changed my perspective / worldview
— Experienced a paradigm shift
— Had a revelation
— Had a transcendent experience
I prefer ‘blow my mind.’ It has punch.